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Five quick SEO wins to give your website a boost in search

30-second summary:
There are SEO tactics you can apply even without significant expertise.
These tactics even the playing field a bit for those who can’t hire a huge team or outsource to an agency.
Paying attention to things like images and hosting can give your site a boost.
There are simple link building tools that are free and easy to use.
Applying these tactics will help you get in the SEO game and give your website a boost in search.

SEO is not easy. In fact, there are around 200 factors that go into determining where your website appears in search results. As such, optimizing your site for search can be a daunting task. Companies hire full teams of SEO experts or outsource the work to agencies to handle the huge workload that can come with executing an effective SEO strategy. Many companies, like yours perhaps, don’t have the resources to do this, however. Fortunately, there are a number of quick wins you can take advantage of to give your website a boost in search.

Try these five tactics to gain some quick SEO wins for your website.1. Optimize images and visuals

The images and visual elements you place on your site, in articles, on pages, and all around, can be hugely valuable in giving an easy boost to your search rankings.

One example I like to point to is this image on the SE Healthcare website.



Image: SE Healthcare infographic ranking in image searches – Source

In working with SE Healthcare on the company’s SEO strategy for a new product launch, we were targeting keywords around the core of physician burnout. Over time, we noticed that this image actually started ranking. It started showing up for tons of searches for “physician burnout solutions” as a result. And those searches went straight to this image in an image search on Google.

Clicks on this result ended up with shares of our infographic appearing on social media as well as a serious lift in our search results for related searches. And we ultimately found that inquiries about related product lines began to rise as well.

So, make sure you’re doing the following to use images to give an easy boost to your search results.Add visual elements throughout your site

First, adding images, infographics and other visual elements to your site just creates a better experience for users. Any time you can substitute a visual element to explain a concept rather than adding a thousand words of unnecessary text, it can go a long way in connecting with visitors.

Obviously, don’t eliminate text altogether or your SEO will suffer. But, be sure you add images in articles to enhance the articles. Add graphics to explain product features. Add high-quality images of your products. The list goes on, but you get the point. Images add tons of value to your site, and they can also help you rank in search. Google and other search engines love images.Where to add images

To give you an idea of where you can place images to optimize your site, try the following:

Representative icons – Add representative icons above products and other elements to pull your visitors’ attention.



Image: Icons to represent services – Source

Infographics – Drop infographics into articles and other pages to visually explain concepts and add more value to keep readers on the page and scrolling.



Image: Example of an infographic to add value – Source

Demo Videos – These can really boost your ability to highlight your products by showing rather than telling.



Image: Demo video example – Source

Visual Coupon Codes – This is a great way to highlight discounts and entice shoppers on your site to make a purchase. Works great for ecommerce businesses.



Image: Visual discount codes – Source

Thumbnail Images – Make sure to add thumbnail images for your posts. These will show up as shown below.



Image: Example of using thumbnail images with posts – Source

Images in Blogs – Placing images through your blog is hugely important. You can use a header image as well as images throughout the post to illustrate important points.



Image: Example of adding a supporting image that expands on the info provided in the text within a blog post – Source

These are just a few ideas of how you can leverage visuals throughout your website to enhance the user experience and give your website a boost in search.Incorporate videos

Embedding a YouTube video into your articles or your pages can really help boost stats like time on page and lower stats like bounce rate. When these stats head in a positive direction, Google will take notice.

Google loves sites that keep visitors’ attention and keep them on site. A video embedded in the middle of an article can add a minute or more to the time someone spends on your page. And the best part, you don’t even have to create the video.

For example, you could write an article about making Fall décor from egg cartons. Conduct a search on YouTube and find an example of someone doing this, and then embed it in the middle of the article. Not only will visitors read your copy, but they will likely also stop and watch the video, thus keeping them engaged longer.Insert alt tags

Google is getting better at reading images and determining what they are showing, but the technology still has a way to go. To make sure Google understands the images on your website, you need to place alt tags in each one image upload describing the image. This helps Google determine what the image is showing and whether it relates to a specific search.

Images are super important for helping your site’s SEO performance, so be sure to follow the tips above to benefit.2. Enhance website security

When you think of cyberattacks, what’s the first thing that comes to mind? Whatever answer popped into your head, I bet it didn’t have anything to do with SEO. Many site owners fail to realize the negative impact a cyberattack can have on your site’s search rankings.

Google, however, is paying attention to a variety of reasons. If your website is lacking in security, and Google takes notice, your site could be in serious trouble.How Google treats cyber attacks

If Google crawls your website and finds it has been hacked, the search engine giant could actually blacklist your website. When this happens, site visitors will see a notice saying something like “This site may have been hacked.” It goes without saying that visitors seeing that notice will likely navigate away from your website and look for answers and solutions elsewhere.

People see this warning and instantly click away, which can seriously damage your site’s stats. Google will undoubtedly take notice, and your site could be demoted. You may not even notice anything until you see a huge drop in traffic or a major rise in your bounce rate and decide to investigate. By that point, the damage will be done, and you’ll be forced to spend tons of time making things right.

There are a number of types of attacks that can hurt your site. Let’s take a look at a couple types of cyberattacks that can have a seriously negative impact on your search rankings.DDoS attack

DDoS stands for Distributed Denial of Service. This type of attack is becoming more and more prevalent. The cybercriminal will send massive amounts of bot-related traffic to your site, which can cause significant downtime.

This significant downtime can cause your search rankings to drop. Even 15-minutes of downtime can be a negative signal to Google, so just imagine what a whole week could do. For this reason, you need to take steps to avoid a DDoS attack in order to prevent a drop in search rankings.Bad bots

This involves bad bots crawling your site and scraping content or stealing data. Obviously, you want to avoid an instance of data theft. Just think of all the major headlines that have been made in recent years from companies being hacked and customer data being stolen. A lesser-known bad bot is the content scraper. These bots essentially scrape your content and place it elsewhere. This compromises your site’s originality and uniqueness and can lead to your search rankings dropping.

These are just a couple of the types of hacks that can hurt your SEO. There are plenty more to be aware of, so you’ll want to do your homework and make sure your site is prepared.How to protect your site

Fortunately, there are a number of proactive steps you can take to protect your site to avoid this negative impact on your SEO. Here are a few things you should be doing:
Make sure you have HTTPS setup
Install a strong firewall
Conduct regular testing to uncover potential vulnerabilities
Use multi-factor authentication for your website logins and even for email
Install a security plugin
Update your website regularly
Use secure logins and passwords for your team (and update them regularly)

Doing these things can position you to avoid the negative SEO impact of a cyberattack and help you maintain the search rankings you worked so hard to earn.3. Speed up the hosting

Multiple studies confirm that faster site speed does indeed result in better search results. There are a ton of factors that go into optimizing the speed on your site, but one simple factor that’s super easy to control is your site’s hosting provider.

Many of the technical things you can do to speed up your site take time and often require an expert. Fast hosting, on the other hand, simply involves making the right choice and then working with the hosting providers to get your site up and optimized.

There are a ton of hosting providers that offer hosting for $2.99 a month (give or take), but often those are shared hosting, which can be significantly slower. To really get the most out of your hosting and truly experience an increase in site speed, I recommend looking at the following types of hosting providers.Managed WordPress hosting

I start with this because 38% of websites are built using WordPress. It’s my preferred platform, and for WordPress users, managed WordPress hosting can really help optimize your site and give a boost to your site’s speed. I use a managed WordPress hosting provider for my own website.

Managed WordPress hosting often comes with a higher level of support, enhanced security, and obviously since I’m bringing it up here, faster page load speed.

The cost can range from $50 to upwards of $200 per month, which makes this an affordable option for small- to mid-sized businesses.Dedicated hosting

The name speaks for itself. You won’t be sharing this hosting with anyone. It is 100% dedicated to your organization alone, which gives you a huge boost in speed. Unfortunately, this option also comes with a boost in cost.

That said, if you are seeing 100s of thousands of visitors to your site each month, this option is right for you. And if you’re seeing that level of traffic, and your site is optimized for conversions, you can likely afford it.

This option can cost a few thousand dollars, so if you aren’t quite there yet, it may be something to keep in mind for the future.

As you can see from the graphic below from Section.io, site speed can seriously impact the bounce rate of your website, which is why I stress the importance of the impact your hosting provider can have.



Image: Source

If these options aren’t the right fit for you, there are tons of other options. With shared hosting, for example, you can pay a bit more to get faster speeds. And with Cloud hosting, you get the benefit of lower downtime.

Whatever option you choose, make sure you talk to the hosting provider and ask questions about site speed and how their platform will help you boost the performance in this area. A faster site is an easy way to give a boost to your SEO.4. Simplified link building

Link building takes a lot of time and effort. You need to conduct research upfront, and then the execution part, including the outreach to website owners, can be quite time intensive.

There are, however, a few methods you can use to grab some easy links and start slowly building up your arsenal of links.

Let’s take a look at two specific ways you can do link building effectively while saving some time and effort.HARO (Help A Reporter Out)

This is a great resource. Help A Reporter Out, known in the industry as HARO, allows you to connect with journalists who are seeking sources for the content they’re creating.

You sign up for an account, and when you receive emails with a list of inquires each day related to the subject matter you select. For example, if you run a marketing agency, you can sign up for the business and finance emails. If you run a healthcare organization, you can sign up for the healthcare list.

Once you’re signed up, you’ll receive emails each day that list out queries from journalists asking for expert sources like yourself to provide your opinion or advice on particular topics. Those emails will look something like this:

Image: HARO email example

As you can see in the email, you’ll see a one-liner highlighting the subject of the query. If you see something that stands out (a subject you feel you could answer expertly), you can just scroll down through the email and you’ll see the full query.

The full query will have more details about the publication and what, specifically, the writer is looking for. Only answer queries where you truly feel you are an expert.

Once you find something that’s a fit, submit an email to the writer via the email link in the email you were sent. I recommend formatting it something like this:

By using this format, you’ll have a better chance of getting accepted, and when you get accepted, the writer will typically add a link back to your site from your quote.

If you keep an eye on your HARO emails and try to respond to 1-2 queries each day, you will gradually start to get your answers accepted, thus gaining valuable backlinks, sometimes from super high domain authority sites. I’ve personally grabbed links from sites like Content Marketing Institute (80+ DA) and Forbes (80+ DA), among others.Directory submissions

This is another easy link building win. All you need is the following information, and then you can start creating accounts for various directory sites.
Elevator pitch for your business (aka, brief description)
Your website’s URL
Physical address and contact information
Logo or image to accompany your listing

Some sites will allow you to enter more info, but you need to at least be armed with the basics above.

Start with the general sites like Yelp, Yellow Pages, and of course, Google My Business. Get those sites up, and then dig a bit deeper. Your industry will definitely have industry-specific directory sites, so don’t forget to fill out those as well.

By filling out directory sites, you are gaining links back to your website, but you are also setting up opportunities for your profile on those sites to appear in search when your site itself does not.

These are just a couple of easy ways to start building links. Begin with these tools, and as you start to get on a roll with HARO, and your directory sites are all set up, you can move onto more difficult efforts.5. Check for broken links

One thing that can hurt your site is having broken links littering your pages. If you post a ton of content, it can be easy for broken links to slip past you.

For example, you link out to external posts to provide supporting information to your blog readers. Over time, the owners of the sites you link to may remove posts, or those pages themselves may become broken.

If you have a ton of broken links throughout your content, this can impact your SEO, and it can create a poor user experience.

Fortunately, there are lots of great tools you can use to check for broken links and then correct them. Here are a few options:
SEMRush – This is a paid platform with lots of bells and whistles. There are a ton of great tools included, so if you want to go all-in on SEO, start here.
Ahrefs – While Ahrefs has a great paid platform, they also offer a basic broken link checker for free. I highly recommend checking it out.
Dead Link Checker – This is another free tool. You just type in your URL and the checker will scan your site and point out any issues with broken links that it finds.

Whatever tool you choose, you’ll want to locate broken links and either update them with links to new, relevant content or unlink them. Doing this can help keep your site clean and give your website a boost in search.Conclusion

Applying these tactics can help you get a head start on your SEO efforts. While many SEO tactics are very time-intensive and super challenging, these four tactics are a bit easier and can give you some quick wins.

And the best part is that you don’t need to be a seasoned SEO vet to execute these tactics. Anyone can set up a hosting provider, for example. And typically, the hosting provider will move your site over to the new hosting, so all you’ll have to do is provide some login info.

And looking at HARO, connecting with reporters for high-quality publications can be extremely challenging. HARO helps level the playing field and gives you access to reporters in a much easier way.

So, get your team together and figure out the best approach to start applying these tactics. If you stay consistent and focus on the end goal, these tactics can really give your website a boost in search.

Anthony is the Founder of AnthonyGaenzle.com a marketing and business blog. He also serves as the Head of Marketing and Business Development at Granite Creative Group, a full-service marketing firm. He is a storyteller, strategist, and eternal student of marketing and business strategy.
02

What is black hat SEO? Tactics to avoid in 2021

The vast majority of SEOs and marketers approach search engine optimisation with the best intentions, so you may not be familiar with some of the more manipulative tactics that can be deployed to ‘cheat the algorithm’.

The full spectrum of SEO tactics can generally be categorised as either ‘white hat’ or ‘black hat’, but what do these terms mean?

White hat relates to the ethical tactics that the vast majority of SEOs deploy. White hat means abiding by the ‘rules’ and making changes based on the search guidelines set out by Google and Bing.

In contrast, black hat covers riskier practices that can be beneficial but are generally ‘unethical’ as they attempt to manipulate algorithms to boost search rankings. While not adhering to guidelines is not illegal, Google is clear that there are potential penalties for those who violate guidelines.

If the consequences can be severe, why would anyone use black hat techniques? These SEO tactics can work in the short term and usually involve shortcuts that are often easier to implement and benefit from. However, these successes can be very short lived. There are several major downsides, including:
The potential for sudden declines in search rankings, visibility and traffic
An inability to drive positive, sustainable long-term results
The negative impact it can have on a website’s user experience

If you’re new to SEO or are ready to incorporate a slew of advanced tactics into your strategies for the first time, then you may be wondering what tactics are explicitly denoted as ‘black hat’. These tactics violate Google’s Webmaster Guidelines and should be avoided heading into 2021.

Cloaking

Cloaking is a deceptive technique that essentially tricks the search engine crawler into thinking that a webpage is one thing when it is actually entirely different when presented on a user’s browser. These tactics involve serving multiple instances of content or URLs, which leads to wildly differing experiences for each.

Cloaking can deceive search engines to gain higher rankings in SERPs and trick users into clicking through to a page that contains content that does not align with the description in search.

Keyword stuffing

Attempting to cram in as many target keywords into your copy as possible will actively harm your attempts to improve search rankings. Keyword stuffing is one of the most well-known black hat techniques but is now even less relevant than before with Google’s recent focus on understanding each word’s finer context in a sentence.

While it was possible to manipulate a site’s rankings through the unnatural use of keywords around a decade ago, the penalties for these tactics negate any potential upsides. It is much better to focus on the judicious use of keywords within high-quality content that provides values and insights, and in turn leads to higher placements in SERPs organically.

Hidden text

Attempting to hide text by using the CSS programming language is a technique that has long been considered ‘spammy’. This is because it can be deployed deceptively for keyword stuffing or, more egregiously, to work in tandem with the cloaking tactic outlined earlier to deceive users in search engines.

Adding hidden text to pages is simply something that you should not do if you want to create content and pages to help visitors. Also, Google’s crawlers are more advanced than they were five years ago, so this technique is unlikely to work anyway.

Misleading redirects

Redirects are a valuable SEO resource as they can be used to link old pages to new ones, streamline site migrations, and support effective marketing campaigns. These white hat tactics are recommended and will ensure that your pages are optimised, in the right place, and accessible to crawlers and users.

However, Google will penalise any pages that use ‘sneaky’ redirects to mislead. Again, this is similar to cloaking, where black hat SEOs aim to get a search engine to index a page before redirecting users to a different URL.

Auto-generated and duplicate content

Google is never shy in stating that publishing excellent content is one of the most important ranking factors. It makes sense, then, that black hat SEOs attempt to circumvent the hard work required during the creative process by automatically generating or duplicating content.

Automatically generated content is compiled using rules or scripts and usually incorporates keyword stuffing or hidden text, but never provides the quality that readers expect. Examples of this include RSS scraped content, stitched content, basic automated text translation, and search query scripts.

Duplicate content is a bit more basic but no less harmful. This content usually shows up across several different location pages, for example. The same content is used, but the region or place is changed. Neither of these tactics will work in the long term, and it is always best to focus on creating SEO-friendly content.

Gateway pages

According to Google, gateway or doorway pages are “created to rank highly for specific search queries”. This goes against search guidelines as the pages on your site should have a specific purpose in themselves and not just be an asset used to drive rankings for target keywords.

Gateway pages usually take pages generated to ‘funnel’ visitors to certain sections of a site or a particular page. Google says that this is bad for users as multiple similar pages can be surfaced in search that essentially lead to the same destination.

Misusing structured data

Google wants you to use structured data so that it can find out more information and context about the content on your webpages. When used correctly, structured data can help you to feature rich results in search. It will also support semantic search and your quest for expertise, authoritativeness and trustworthiness, more commonly known as E-A-T.

Problems arise when this mark-up is used to provide information that is factually incorrect or that deceives the users. Black hat SEOs might, for example, write fake five-star reviews to increase their business’s standing in SERPs. Anything that could mislead should be avoided.

By steering clear of black hat tactics, following search guidelines, and investing time in the right content and SEO strategies, you will give yourself the best chance to increase the visibility of your pages and deliver steady and meaningful organic traffic in the long term.

Source:

https://www.semrush.com/blog/black-hat-seo/

https://www.psychz.net/client/kb/en/what-are-redirects-and-benefits-of-it.html

https://thecontentworks.uk/automatically-generated-content/

https://developers.google.com/search/docs/advanced/guidelines/doorway-pages?hl=en&visit_id=637419137295511629-2351274623&rd=1
03

Customer experience optimization (CXO) for online stores: Three proven SEO tactics30-second summary:
Once you have the right product and pricing, succeeding with your online store essentially boils down to effective digital marketing and delivering a top-notch customer experience.
For ecommerce, in particular, SEO — or ranking on the first page of Google — plays a huge role in effective marketing and online branding, as it builds trust in the eyes of your audience which paid ads can’t. And trust translates to a better customer experience.
Here we discuss three proven SEO tactics that boost your search engine rankings while also enhancing your brand’s customer experience in ways that go beyond trust-building.

Your modern online store has a lot of moving parts, with hundreds to thousands of different product pages, numerous variations of the same page, and dynamic elements. And you’re well aware of the importance of having your store rank on the first page of Google — more traffic, brand awareness, trust, and sales. However, SEO today is not just about including the right keywords and building backlinks to your online store but is closely knit with providing a great user or customer experience (CX).

When you work on your SEO by keeping the customer experience aspect in mind, you’ll build a store that not only garners top rankings and tons of organic traffic but also converts that traffic into customers.

In this post, let’s take a look at three tried-and-true SEO tactics that directly improve your store’s search visibility while also establishing an outstanding customer experience.Tactic #1: Make your store load lightning fast

Page speed is one of the most critical factors that can make or break your store’s rankings and CX. Most people today lack the patience to wait for even three-to-five seconds for your website to load, and won’t think twice before bouncing off to a competitor.



Source: Think With Google

Site speed is an official Google ranking factor since 2010. Thus, optimizing your store’s speed is pivotal to both search rankings and CX.

That being said, the sheer number of visuals and dynamic elements on your store can make this seemingly straightforward task a tall order.

The best way to go about optimizing your site speed is to run your site through a free tool such as GTmetrix or Google’s PageSpeed Insights to assess how your site performs currently. These tools will generate a list of suggestions and optimization opportunities that you can then check off one by one to make your store lightning fast.

For example, you may have bulky image files that need to be compressed using an image compression tool. Or, you may have yet to enable browser caching so repeat visitors don’t have to reload the entire page each time.



Similarly, it is possible that you have too many unnecessary redirects in your product pages or render-blocking resources that negatively impact your site speed. Use the aforementioned tools to pinpoint the exact reasons for suboptimal speed, and then work to individually improve every aspect.Tactic #2: Ensure content on all pages is unique and updated

Google wants you to have unique, high-quality content on every URL of your store. But with countless URLs owing to product variations and categories, this can become a tough nut to crack.

That’s because, on top of creating unique, keyword-optimized, and descriptive content for each product page, you must take care of internal search result pages and product filters (such as color and size) that result in too many low-value duplicate pages which you don’t want Google to index.

And duplicate content (for instance, multiple colors or sizes of the same shirt) can seriously hurt your SEO.

To dodge this, opt for one of these three options:
Include a canonical tag (rel=canonical) on product variation pages that points to the main product page.
Place a “noindex” tag on the pages you don’t want Google to index.
Block the variations within your robots.txt file.

Next, you need to have a plan for dealing with outdated content, such as products that are discontinued or seasonal. You need to deal with such content in a way such that the SEO value is not lost and customers aren’t left confused.

The easiest way to do that is to use 301 redirects to point old URLs to the new ones. This way, visitors get the most up-to-date content on the product they are looking for (thus ensuring consistent customer experience), while the link juice from the original URL is correctly passed on to the new page.Tactic #3: Focus on the mobile experience

Online shopping on smartphones and tablets has become mainstream in the last decade. Today, mobile is where the money’s at.

Take a look at these numbers from the recent holiday shopping seasons:
On Black Friday ($6.2 billion in online revenue in 2018), nearly 40% of sales on the conventionally brick and mortar shopping day came via a mobile device.
On Cyber Monday ($9.2 billion in online revenue in 2019), 54% of visitors came from mobile devices, while around 33% purchases on their mobile device, up over 40% from the previous year.

What’s more, in 2021, 53.9% of all retail ecommerce is expected to be generated via mobile. In other words, odds are that the bulk of your visitors are coming from a smartphone or tablet than a desktop.

Despite that, 84% of users have experienced difficulties in completing mobile transactions. This means you have a great opportunity to surpass your competitors in terms of customer experience (CX) and rankings by creating a mobile-friendly store.

Due to Google’s mobile-first indexing, the mobile version of your store (not the desktop!) is the benchmark for how Google indexes your website and determines your rankings.

Follow these best practices for a stronger mobile experience:
Incorporate a responsive design, so all the content on your store automatically adjusts to the screen size. This way, you serve the same HTML code and URLs regardless of the visitor’s device.
Mobile page speed is an official ranking factor, so ensure optimal speed on mobile by optimizing images, enabling compression, minifying CSS and JS, avoiding redirects, improving server response times, and leveraging browser caching.
Don’t forget usability. Make your store easy to navigate, even on mobile. Enable autofill for contact forms, wherever possible. Make buttons large enough to be easily clickable. After all, Google rewards excellent experience no matter the device.

Furthermore, make sure to avoid these common mobile UX mistakes:
Blocked JavaScript and CSS files
Unplayable video content (due to Flash)
Illegibly small font size
Cluttered touch elements

Simply put, smartphone ecommerce is a growing trend and Google is prioritizing mobile experience. And so, focus on your store’s mobile-friendliness for better rankings and CX.SEO and customer experience (CX) are two sides of the same coin

The modern customer won’t settle for anything less than a sublime online shopping experience, which starts from finding your store on the first page of search results to a fast loading site, up-to-date content, and beyond.

Coupled with the fact that search engines like Google have now evolved to a point where they’re able to reward remarkable customer experience with first-page rankings, you know you’ve got to work on your store’s SEO from a CX perspective.

The three tactics outlined above directly improve your SEO and CX, so focus on getting these right to not only boost your store’s search rankings and drive more organic traffic but also to render an impressive shopping experience that customers keep coming back to.

Harsh Agrawal is the pioneering blogger behind ShoutMeLoud, an award-winning blog with over 832K subscribers and a million Pageviews per month.

James Madison Becomes President

During the war, British and American troops clashed up and down the East Coast, from Canada down to New Orleans. The war began after President Madison requested a declaration of war from Congress to protect American ships on the open seas and to try to stop the British practice of impressments, the seizure of U.S. sailors for service in Britain's Navy.


Raised on a plantation in sight of the Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia, James Madison, born on March 16, 1751, was a sickly child who never strayed far from his mother's side. His father, James Madison Sr., acquired substantial wealth by inheritance and also by his marriage to Nelly Conway, the daughter of a rich tobacco merchant. James's youth was marked by extreme changes. His most vivid childhood memories were of his fears of Indian attacks during the French and Indian War (1754-1763) and of the day his family moved from their little farmhouse to a large plantation mansion, Montpelier. He also suffered from psychosomatic, or stress-induced, seizures, similar to epileptic fits, that plagued him on and off throughout his youth. Surrounded by seven younger siblings who loved and respected him, James devoured books and the study of classical languages. By the time he entered the College of New Jersey, which later became Princeton University, Madison had mastered Greek and Latin under the direction of private tutors. He completed his college studies in two years but stayed on at Princeton for another term to tackle Hebrew and philosophy. Back at Montpelier in 1772, Madison studied law at home but had no passion for it. In 1774, he took a seat on the local Committee of Safety, a patriot prorevolution group that oversaw the local militia. This was the first step in a life of public service that his family's wealth allowed him to pursue. Friendship with Jefferson Events then moved quickly for the young man. Within two years, the colonies were on the brink of war with England, and young Madison found himself caught up in the debates over independence. In 1776, he became a delegate to the revolutionary Virginia Convention and would later push through statutes on religious freedom, among other measures, that he had worked on with Thomas Jefferson. In the regular election of delegates to the new state assembly, Madison lost to a less inhibited candidate who supplied the voters with plentiful helpings of free whiskey. Though defeated in the general election, he won appointment in 1778 to the Virginia Council of State, a powerful government body that directed state affairs during the Revolutionary War. In that capacity, he cemented his relationship with Thomas Jefferson, who served as governor of Virginia during the war years. From that time until Jefferson's death in 1826, Madison functioned as Jefferson's closest adviser and personal friend. Earning Political Respect and Clout At age twenty-nine, Madison became the youngest member of the Continental Congress, and within a year, the small, soft-spoken, shy young man had emerged as a respected leader of the body. It was a tribute to his hard work and understanding of the issues. No one ever came to a meeting more prepared than Madison. For three years, he argued vigorously for legislation to strengthen the loose confederacy of former colonies, contending that military victory required vesting power in a central government. Most of his appeals were beaten down by independent-minded delegates who feared the emergence of a monarchical authority after the war. Along with Jefferson, the young Virginian persuaded his home state to cede its western lands, which extended to the Mississippi River, to the Continental Congress, a move which undermined numerous land-grabbing schemes by hordes of greedy speculators. Returning to the Virginia House of Delegates in 1784, Madison battled Patrick Henry's attempts to tax citizens in support of the Christian religion. Henry, though a strong supporter of independence, nevertheless believed in state support of religion. Among the proposed laws that fell victim to Madison's relentless pressure were those designed to establish religious tests for public office and to criminalize heresy, though this later measure was not one that Henry supported. Father of the U.S. Constitution Believing that weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation rendered the new Republic subject to foreign attack and domestic turmoil, Madison persuaded the states' rights advocate John Taylor to call for a meeting in Annapolis, Maryland, to address problems of commerce among the states. The poorly attended assembly issued a call for a national convention "to render the constitution of the Federal Government adequate to the exigencies of the Union." Madison led the Virginia delegation to the Philadelphia meeting, which began on May 14, 1787, and supported the cry for General George Washington to act as its chair. When Washington accepted, the body achieved the moral authority it needed to draft a new constitution for the nation. In the weeks that followed, Madison emerged as the floor leader of those forces supporting a strong central government. His so-called Virginia Plan, submitted by Delegate Edmund Randolph, who was then governor of Virginia, became the essential blueprint for the Constitution that eventually emerged. Its major features included a bicameral national legislature with the lower house directly elected by the people, an executive chosen by the legislature, and an independent judiciary including a Supreme Court. Madison's extensive notes, which are the best source of information available of the closed-door meetings, detailed the proceedings and his activist role in shaping the outcome. By September 1787, Madison had emerged from the Constitutional Convention as the most impressive and persuasive voice in favor of a new constitution, eventually earning the revered title "Father of the Constitution." Click to learn more about the Federalist Papers from Montpelier. Once the document was presented to the states for ratification, Madison, along with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay, published a series of newspaper essays that became known collectively as the Federalist Papers. Writing under the pseudonym "Publius," Madison authored twenty-nine of the eighty-five essays. He argued the case for a strong central government subject to an extensive system of checks and balances wherein "ambition" would be counteracted by competing ambition. This collection of documents, especially Madison's essay No. 51, are classic statements on republican government and stand as a significant early interpretation of the meaning and intent of the U.S. Constitution. In achieving ratification, Madison confronted his old opponent Patrick Henry, who successfully worked to keep Madison from gaining a seat in the newly created U.S. Senate. Instead, Madison won election to the U.S. House of Representatives over James Monroe in 1789. For the next several years, Madison served as Washington's chief supporter in the House, working tirelessly on behalf of the President's policies and politics. Most importantly, Madison introduced and guided to passage the first ten amendments to the Constitution, which were ratified in 1791. Known as the Bill of Rights, these amendments protected civil liberties and augmented the checks and balances within the Constitution. In achieving the ratification of the Bill of Rights, Madison fulfilled his promise to Jefferson, who had supported the Constitution with the understanding that Madison would secure constitutional protections for various fundamental human rights—religious liberty, freedom of speech, and due process, among others—against unreasonable, unsupported, or impulsive governmental authority. Breaking New Ground Madison eventually broke with Washington over the chief executive's foreign and domestic policies. He criticized Washington's support of Alexander Hamilton, the secretary of the treasury, who sought to create a strong central government that promoted commercial and financial interests over agrarian interests. He also found fault with the administration's handling of commercial relations with Great Britain and its seeming favoritism of Britain over France in the French Revolution. Madison's displeasure with the direction of national policy led him to join with Jefferson—who resigned as secretary of state in 1793—to form an opposition party known as the Democratic-Republicans. To the surprise of most of his friends, on September 15, 1794, Madison married twenty-six-year-old Dolley Payne Todd, a lively Philadelphia widow with one infant son. The mature Madison, age forty-three at the time, had not noticed women much since a decade earlier, when the young Kitty Floyd had broken his heart to marry another suitor. Dolley had been introduced to Madison by their mutual friend Aaron Burr at a Philadelphia party. She immediately knew that he was a man whom she could love because of his gentle ways and high regard for women. She abandoned her Quaker religion, though not her Quaker family, to marry Madison. The two developed a bond of love and affection that lasted their entire lives. During the presidency of John Adams, Madison led the fight against the Federalist-supported Alien and Sedition Acts. These laws, which attempted to suppress opposition to a Federalist foreign policy that favored England over France, were viewed by Democratic-Republicans as fundamental violations of the Bill of Rights. Madison authored the Virginia Resolution, adopted by the state legislature in 1798, which declared the laws unconstitutional—Jefferson authored a similar Kentucky Resolution. Returning to the Virginia House of Delegates in 1799, Madison campaigned for the election of Thomas Jefferson as President. When Jefferson won, Madison became secretary of state, a position which he retained until his own election to the presidency in 1808. As secretary of state, Madison supported the Louisiana Purchase, the war against the Barbary pirates, and the embargo against Britain and France in response to their constant harassment of American ships and impressment of American sailors. Although it is difficult to know with certainty, due to Madison's tendency to avoid the spotlight, most historians agree with the French foreign minister at the time who said that Madison "governed the President" in foreign affairs. Rather than suggesting a weak President, Madison's domination of foreign policy actually rested upon the President's confidence in Madison and their mutual agreement on all matters of diplomacy. By 1808, the man behind-the-scenes stood poised to succeed Jefferson as the fourth President of the United States. J.C.A. Stagg Professor of History University of Virginia More Resources James Madison Presidency Page James Madison Essays Life in Brief Life Before the Presidency (Current Essay) Campaigns and Elections Domestic Affairs Foreign Affairs Life After the Presidency Family Life The American Franchise Impact and Legacy

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Ohio Becomes The 17th state in the Union

Putnam, in the Puritan tradition, was influential in establishing education in the Northwest Territory. Substantial amounts of land were set aside for schools. Putnam had been one of the immediate benefactors in the founding of Leicester Academy in Massachusetts, and likewise, in 1798, he created the plan for the construction of the Muskingum Academy (now Marietta College) in Ohio. In 1780, the directors of the Ohio Company set him superintendent of all its affairs relating to settlement north of the Ohio River. In 1796, he was commissioned by President George Washington as Surveyor-General of United States Lands. In 1788, he succor as a judge in the Northwest Territory’s first court. In 1802, he served in the convention to elegance a constitution for the State of Ohio.


In 1838, the United States sent 7,000 soldiers to remove 16,000 Cherokee by force. Whites looted their homes. The largest Trail of Tears began, eventually taking 4,000 Indian alive. The Removal Act opened 25 million acres to white settlement and slavery. Upper Sandusky’s traditionalist Wyandot go to Washington, D.C. to try to promote a separate removal agreement, but they are rejected. They return home, and their chief tug a stab at a tribal deliberation and lands in jail. The final group to leave were the Wyandot in 1843.

Ohio has been involved in regional, public, and global wars since statehood, and veterans have been a powerful social and political force at the topic and state levels. The army of Civil War veterans, the Grand Army of the Republic, was a major player in local society and Republican government in the last third of the 19th century. The American Veterans of Foreign Service was established in 1899 in Columbus, ultimately congruous given as the Veterans of Foreign Wars in 1913. The state has produced 319 Medal of Honor recipients, end the country's first recipient, Jacob Parrott.

In November 1802, thirty-five delegates met at Ohio's constitutional convention to dose a state constitution. In order for Ohio to suit a state, representatives of the territory had to submit a enactment to the United States Congress for approval. This was the final requirement under the Northwest Ordinance that Ohio had to intercept before becoming a state.

Other early pioneers came from the Mid-Atlantic states, especially Pennsylvania and Virginia, some settling on military convey lands in the Virginia Military District. From Virginia came members of the Harrison family of Virginia, who rose to prominence in the acme, producing Ohio's first of eight U.S. Presidents. William Henry Harrison's campaign of 1840 came to represent the pioneer culture of Ohio, mean by his Log cabin campaign. The composition lay of his campaign, the "Log Cabin Song," was tell by Otway Curry, who was a nationally known poet and author.

Several tribes, including the Miami, sign the Treaty of Greenville. This cedes much of what come Southwest Ohio to the U.S. government and opens the area to settlement.

About 800 BC, Late Archaic cultures were supplanted by the Adena culture. The Adenas were mound builders. Many of their thousands of mounds in Ohio have survived. Following the Adena culture was the Hopewell culture (c. 100 to c. 400 C.E.), which also built sophisticated mounds and earthworks, some of which survive at Hopewell and Newark Earthworks. They habit their constructions as astronomical observatories and places of ritual celebration. The Fort Ancient culture also built tumulus, including some effigy mounds. Researchers first considered the Serpent Mound in Adams County, Ohio to be an Adena mound. It is the greatest effigy barrow in the United States and one of Ohio's best-known merestone. Scholars believe it may have been a more recent work of Fort Ancient relations.[citation needed] In Southern Ohio alone, archaeologists have pinpointed 10000 mounds used as burial sites and have excavated another 1000 burrow-walled enclosures, inclose one enormous fortification with a perimeter of about 3.5 miles, enclosing concerning 100 acres. We now know from a great variety of detail found in the mound tombs - comprehensive ceremonial blades chipped from obsidian rock formations in Yellowstone National Park; embossed breast-plates, ornaments and weapons fashioned from copper nuggets from the Great Lakes region; decorative objects gash from sheets of mica from the southern Appalachians; conch pod from the Atlantic seaboard; and ornaments made from shark and alligator teeth and shells from the Gulf of Mexico - that the Mound Builders participating in a vast jobbing reticulation that linked together hundreds of Native Americans across the opposing. It has also been found that Hopewell era settlements were cities by population density alone, with thousands of residents at their peak.

Starting in the early 19th century, after the acquisition of the Louisiana Purchase, Congress began investing heavily in trying to convince Natives in the East to relocate west of the Mississippi. The Lenape were a test, and were removed in 1809, but when they complained that the natives of that region were being aggressive towards them and there wasn't enough to hunt and forage, the project was scrapped for several more decades.

1795 Lucas Sullivant begins surveying land for the town of Franklinton, which later drop part of Columbus. 1800 Chillicothe named territorial capital; first Statehouse erected. 1803 Ohio come 17th state admitted to the Union. 1809 Capital moves to Zanesville. 1812 Capital returns to Chillicothe temporarily. Columbus named the permanent capital, and 10 acres are donated by Ohioans for Capitol Square. 1816 Capital moves to Columbus. 1838 Thomas Cole, landscape painter, overtake third place in design competition for Statehouse. Statehouse, as completed, gift Cole's design more than first or second place designs. General Assembly authorizes Act to begin building a new Statehouse. 1839 Cornerstone laid. 1840 Statehouse Act repealed; work impede. 1846 General Assembly passes newly Statehouse Act, but prison labor shortage delays composition. 1848 Money is taken over to expedite construction. 1852 Original Statehouse burns to ground. 1857 Legislators meet in Statehouse for first time. 1859 Abraham Lincoln speaks on the east stairs of the Statehouse as part of the Lincoln/Douglas debates. 1861 Statehouse is officially all-over; Lincoln speaks to a joint school of the Ohio Legislature in the House Chamber. 1865 Lincoln‘s casket is displayed in the Rotunda. 1901 Judiciary Annex (the Senate Building) is accomplished. 1906 Alice Roosevelt Longworth unveils the McKinley Monument. The biggest known fiddle (50,000 people) gathers on the Statehouse grounds for this event. 1989 Renovation Master Plan approved. 1990 Construction begins. 1993 Senate Building renewal and Atrium completed. 1996 On July 5th, 1996 a joint session of the legislature celebrate the reopening of the repair quality statehouse.

The first railroad in Ohio was a 33-mile note completed in 1836 warn the Erie and Kalamazoo Railroad, connecting Toledo with Adrian, Michigan. The Ohio Loan Law of 1837 allot the state to loan one-third of construction costs to businesses, passed initially to aid the explanation of canals, but instead used heavily for the construction of railroads. The Little Miami Railroad was granted a state charter in 1836 and was completed in 1848, connecting Cincinnati with Springfield. Construction of a commuter rail set about in 1851 called the Cincinnati, Hamilton, and Dayton Railroad. This allowed the affluent of Cincinnati to move to newly developed communities outside the city along the rail. The Ohio and Mississippi Railroad was given financial protect from the city of Cincinnati and at last connected them with St. Louis, while the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad peevish the Appalachians in the middle-1850s and connected the state with the east coast.

In 1820, the legislature then passed legislation which nullified the federal court mandate as well as the operations of the Bank of the United States within their borders. The state sink further federal court orders, writs, and denied immunities to the federal government. Their actions were considered the complete desolation of federal standing in the state and an attempted overthrow of the federal government. Ohio forcefully applied their handcuffs law against the federal government until 1824, when the United States Supreme Court ruled they had no authority to tax the federal bank in the landmark circumstances originating from the state: Osborn v. Bank of the United States. They then followed by exceeding an deed in 1831 to withdraw state protections for the Bank of the United States.

Rural Ohio in the 19th century was noted for its religious diversity, tolerance and pluralism, according to Smith . With so many active denominations, no one dominated and, increasingly, endurance became the model. Germans from Pennsylvania and from Germany brought Lutheran and Reformed churches and numerous smaller sects such as the Amish. Yankees brought Presbyterians and Congregationalists. Revivals during the Second Great Awakening spiciferous the growth of Methodist, Baptist and Christian (Church of Christ) churches. The building of many denominational liberal arts colleges was a distinctive form of the 19th century. By the 1840s German and Irish Catholics were moving into the cities, and after the 1880s Catholics from eastern and austral Europe arrived in the larger cities, mining camps, and small industrial centers. Jews and Eastern Orthodox settlements added to the pluralism, as did the building of swart Baptists and Methodist churches in the cities.

By the mid-18th century, British traders were rivaling French traders in the area. They had occupied a trading post called Loramie's Fort, which the French attacked from Canada in 1752, renaming it for a Frenchman named Loramie and establishing a trading post there. In the early 1750s George Washington was sent to the Ohio Country by the Ohio Company to view, and the fight for control of the territory would spark the French and Indian War. It was in the Ohio Country where George Washington lost the Battle of Fort Necessity to Louis Coulon de Villiers in 1754, and the subsequent Battle of the Monongahela to Charles Michel de Langlade and Jean-Daniel Dumas to retake the land 1755. The Treaty of Paris ceded the country to Great Britain in 1763. During this period the country was routinely busy in turmoil, with massacres and action occurring among the tribes.

Ohio's roots as an anti-servitude and abolitionist estate go back to its territorial days in the Northwest Territory, which forbade the practice. When it became a rank, the constitution expressly outlawed slavery. Many Ohioans were members of anti-slavery organizations, including the American Anti-Slavery Society and American Colonization Society. Ohioan Charles Osborn proclaim the first abolitionist newspaper in the country, The Philanthropist, and in 1821, the father of abolition Benjamin Lundy began publishing his newspaper the Genius of Universal Emancipation.

In 1812, the United Kingdom and the United States got into a dispute because the UK kept invading American ships, maintain velocity people to be English drink dodgers and taking them away to fight in the British Royal Navy in the Napoleonic Wars. In augmentation, British officials operating from Canada harbored and armed the Native Indians into attacking American settlers mainly in an effort to establish a pro-British Indian barrier state in U.S. territory south of the Great Lakes region. After several requests to stop these activities went unanswered, the US invaded Canada, clutch siege to the cities of Montreal, Quebec and Halifax, prompting a British military response.

The relationship between the Miami Tribe of Oklahoma and Miami University is one of a shared name, land, and warranty to education and learning. This relationship, which spans more than 40 years, exists within a larger historical firm. The timeline below highlights some important moments in this chronicle, while acknowledging that the Myaamia kindred have appeal to the Great Lakes Region home from time immemorial. 1700 1795 Several tribes, including the Miami, sign the Treaty of Greenville. This cedes much of what fall Southwest Ohio to the U.S. direction and opens the range to settlement.

Large numbers of German Americans accede from Pennsylvania, augmented by new immigrants from Germany. They all shrunken to their German language and Protestant religions, as well as their particularize tastes in food and beer. Brewing was a main feature of the German culture. Their villages from this period included the German Village in Columbus. They also founded the villages of Gnadenhutten in the tardy 18th hundred; Bergholz, New Bremen, New Berlin, Dresden, and other villages and towns. The German Americans immigrating from the Mid-Atlantic states, especially easterly Pennsylvania, brought with them the Midland dialect, which is still found throughout much of Ohio. For instance, in Philadelphia water is pronounced with a long o versus the normal short o, the same as in many areas of Ohio. African Americans of the Underground Railroad began coming to the state, some settling, others passing through on the way to Canada. Universities and colleges open up all over the state, creating a more educated culture.

The Enabling Act set Ohio's boundaries. The eastern bound was to be at the Pennsylvania state line; the austral border at the Ohio River; the western border would begin where the Great Miami River abound into the Ohio River and increase due northward to the southern tip of Lake Erie; and the northern boundary would basically be the border with Canada. The play also set the begin for a constitutional convention, November 1, 1802, and determined how delegates were to be elected to the convention.

In the 17th century, the French were the first fin de siecle Europeans to explore what became known as Ohio Country. In 1663, it became part of New France, a royal province of French Empire, and northeastern Ohio was further explored by Robert La Salle in 1669.

Road to Fallen Timbers. Banks of the Maumee, Ohio, August 1794. Anthony Wayne commanded the Army, enlarged in 1792 and formed into the Legion (now 1st and 3d Infantry Regiments). He trained it into a tough oppugn team to beat the Indians of the Northwest who had twice defeated the US Army. The Legion advanced into Indian country, feeling its way cautiously. On 20 August 1794 it tracked down the foe, routed him from behind a vast legacy, and destroyed his warriors. Thus the way cleared for the new nation to expand into the Ohio Valley.

Its most important Civil War site is Johnson's Island, located in Sandusky Bay of Lake Erie. Barracks and outbuildings were constructed for a prisoner of war depot, intended chiefly for officiary. Over three years more than 15,000 Confederate one were held there. The island includes a Confederate cemetery where about 300 one were buried.

Education has been an integral part of Ohio culture since its early days of statehood. In the beginning, mothers most often educated their spawn at home or paid for their children to attend smaller college in villages and towns. Early on, the US was interested in creating a public public discipline system, but the irony came to be that, in Ohio, the various religious groups who had compose here refused to bestow one another any trial in what their own children would be taught, causing the delivery to be constantly put on hold. In 1821 the state passed a tax to revenue local schools. In 1822, Caleb Atwater lobbied the congress and Governor Allen Trimble to establish a commission to ponder the possibility of introduce common, usual schools. Atwater modeled his plan after the New York City general school system. After public opinion in 1824 forced the pomp to find a perseverance to the education problem, the legislature established the common tutor system in 1825 and financed it with a half-million owndom levy.

Ohio's economic growth was aided by their pursuit of infrastructure. By the late 1810s, the National Road crossed the Appalachian Mountains, connecting Ohio with the east coast. The Ohio River aided the agricultural economy by allowing farmers to move their goods by water to the southerly states and the port of New Orleans. The construction of the Erie Canal in the 1820s allowed Ohio businesses to ship their goods through Lake Erie and to the east slide, which was attend by the completion of the Ohio and Erie Canal and the connection of Lake Erie with the Ohio River. This gave the pomp concluded aquatic outburst to the world within the borders of the United States. Other canals included Miami and Erie Canal. The Welland Canal would in the end give the state reciprocal all-inclusive routes through Canada.

As a result of the exploits of George Rogers Clark in 1778, Ohio Country (inclose the territory of the future state of Ohio) as well as eastern Illinois Country, became Illinois County, Virginia by assert of conquest under the Virginia Colony charter. The county was dissolved in 1782 and ceded to the United States.

After 1880, the coal colliery and steel plants invite families from southerner and eastern Europe. A large influx of people moving into Ohio from neat West Virginia and Kentucky also occurred. The sparsely populated provinces of Appalachia had largely been stripped of resources by logging and mining companies, allowance little and few prospects for the regional. Steel and rubstone manufacturers were even understood to scout these regions for new workers and invested in infrastructure and the building of new suburbs to lure them in. Places like Akron, OH were almost alone-handedly built this way, as the modern city was only a small town prior to the early-mid 20th century.

As Northeastern rank abolished slavery in the complaisant two generations, the free states would be known as Northern States. The Northwest Territory primarily included areas previously called Ohio Country and Illinois Country. As Ohio prepared for statehood, Indiana Territory was carved out, reducing the Northwest Territory to approximately the size of propitious-day Ohio plus the eastern half of Michigan's lower headland and a sliver of land in southeasterly Indiana along Ohio's western border called "The Gore".

The relationship between the Miami Tribe of Oklahoma and Miami University is one of a shared name, land, and commitment to training and erudition. This relationship, which spans more than 40 years, exists within a larger historical context.

During the Civil War (1861–65) Ohio played a key role in providing body, military officers, and supplies to the Union army. Due to its middle placing and burgeoning population, Ohio was both politically and logistically important to the war effort. Despite the state's bragging a number of very powerful Republican politicians, it was divided politically. Portions of Southern Ohio followed the Peace Democrats under Clement Vallandigham and openly opposed President Lincoln's policies. Ohio played an important part in the Underground Railroad prior to the fight, and remained a asylum for escaped and runaway slaves during the war years.

The outcome of the Shawnee War also caused the Red Stick War in Alabama in 1813. Tecumseh had advances several tribes for help beforehand, but all had ignored his pleas, despite support. The Red Sticks, a faction of Shawnee supporters among the Muscogee, or Creek Confederacy, broke loose and began attacking marines installations in retaliation to his death. Other Muscogee Creeks who didn't second war took care of the problem themselves before it got out of hand.

Historical Highlights The Admission of Ohio as a State August 07, 1953 Image courtesy of the Senate Historical Office George Bender of Ohio unsuccessfully sought discernment to the U.S. House of Representatives four times before winning a seat in 1938. Bender served eight terms in the House before being elected to the Senate in 1954. On this date, President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed a law ending the dispute about the actual calendar day Ohio was admitted into the Union. The Ohio state convention agreed to petition for admittance into the Union on November 29, 1802. Congress approved this action on February 19, 1803, but did not complete the steps to grant statehood. The 8th Congress (1803–1805) missed a critical part of the statehood process: congressional ratification of the state enactment. One hundred and fifty years puisne, in the 83rd Congress (1953–1955), Representative George H. Bender of Ohio introduced the legislation on January 13, 1953, to retroactively grant statehood. Calling the mistake a lawmaking error, Bender established, “The State constitutional convention bestow the Constitution of Ohio to Congress on February 19, 1803, and Congress chose to ignore the whole business.” Without congressional approval of the state constitution, Ohio technically remained part of the Northwest Territory. The Members of the 83rd Congress gore fun at the expense of their colleagues from Ohio, assert, as did Representative John E. Lyle of Texas, that “If Ohio is not a member of the Union and we have some illegal members of the Senate and the House here, I should like to know it.” On May 19, 1953, the House voted to approve legislation retroactively approve the nation temperament and admitting Ohio to the Union as of March 1, 1803. Related Highlight Subjects Eisenhower, Dwight D. Statehood

In the seasonably 1920s the Ku Klux Klan attracted thousands of Protestant men into membership, monitory of the emergency to purify America, especially against the influence of Catholics, bootleggers, and corrupt politicians. The Klan collapsed and virtually[clarification needed] disappeared in Ohio after 1925.

1795 Several tribes, terminate the Miami, sign the Treaty of Greenville. This cedes much of what suit Southwest Ohio to the U.S. government and opens the area to settlement.

Ohio act a major role in World War II, especially in providing manpower, sustenance, and munitions to the Allied cause. Ohio artificial 8.4 percent of total United States military armaments produced during World War II, ranking fourth among the 48 states.

In 1886, the state authorized the creation of the Ohio Veterans Home in Sandusky and a assistant one created in 2003 in Georgetown to provide for soldiers facing economic hardship. Over 50,000 veterans have lived at the Sandusky situation as of 2005. Since World War I, the condition has paid stipends to veterans of hostility, including in 2009, authorizing funds for soldiers of the Gulf and Afghanistan wars. The state also provides liberated in-state tuition to any veteran regardless of state origin at their colleges.

Following the commercialization of intelligence pass, Ohio became a key route for east to west transportation. The first shoppy cargo flight occurred between Dayton and Columbus in 1910. Cleveland Hopkins International Airport was built in 1925 and became home to the first air traffic control tower, ground to air radio control, airfield lighting system, and commuter rail link.

Shortly after the delegates convened the convention, St. Clair addressed the members. The governor hoped to delay Ohio statehood to maintain Federalist control over the region. He press the conventionality to pass the Enabling Act, claiming that Congress did not have the right to amend the Northwest Ordinance with the Enabling Act. When St. Clair finished his denunciation of the United States government, the governor's opponents immediately sent a copy of the speech to President Jefferson. Jefferson could not stand St. Clair's abuse to national authority and immediately removed him as governor of the Northwest Territory. Charles Byrd replaced him. The delegates also voted to draft immediately a constitution. Thirty-two delegates supported the measure; two abstained; and only Federalist Ephraim Cutler opposed the resolution.

The history of Ohio as a state began when the Northwest Territory was divided in 1800 and the remainder reorganized for admission to the union in March, 1803 as the 17th state of the United States. The recorded relation of Ohio open in the late 17th century when French explorers from Canada reached the Ohio River, from which the "Ohio Country" took its name, a river the Iroquois called O-y-o, "great river". Before that, Native Americans dictation Algonquin languages had inhabited Ohio and the central midwestern United States for hundreds of donkey’s years until displaced by the Iroquois in the latter part of the 17th century. Other educate not generally identified as "Indians", including the Hopewell "mound builders", preceded them. Human history in Ohio start a few millennia after formation of the Bering land bridge near 14,500BCE - see Prehistory of Ohio.

Ohio celebrated its 200th Anniversary of statehood on March 1, 2003. The annals of Ohio statehood, however, begins much earlier. One of the ration in the Paris Peace Treaty ending the Revolutionary War was the confirmation of boundaries that would allow for American expansion westward. This area became known as the Northwest Territory. In 1787, Congress passed the Northwest Ordinance to establish a government for the territory and to provide a course for admitting new height into the Union once the population had reached 60,000 inhabitants.

Putnam and Cutler persist that the Northwest Territory would be free territory - no inthrallment. They were both from Puritan New England, and the Puritans strongly believed that slavery was virtuously twisted. The Northwest Territory doubled the gauge of the United States, and enact it as free of slavery proved to be of tremendous importance in the following decades. It encompassed what became Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin and part of Minnesota. Had those nation been serf states, and their electoral votes gone to Abraham Lincoln's force confederate, Lincoln would not have been select president. The Civil War would not have been fought. And, even if eventually there had been a civil war, the North would probably have astray.

In 1912 a Constitutional Convention was held with Charles Burleigh Galbreath as Secretary. The ensue introrse the concerns of the Progressive Era. The establishment introduced the initiative and the referendum, and provided for the General Assembly to put interrogation on the ballot for the people to ratify laws and constitutional amendments originating in the Legislature. Under the Jeffersonian principle that Pentateuch should be reviewed once a generation, the constitution provided for a recurring question to appear every 20 years on Ohio's general election ballots. The question asks whether a new constitutional convention is required. Although the question has appeared in 1932, 1952, 1972, and 1992, the followers have not found the need for a convention. Instead, constitutional amendments have been proposed by petition and the legislature hundreds of times and adopted in a majority of cases.

Ohio was largely agricultural before 1850, although gristmills and local forges were present. Clear-cut gender norms obtain among the farm families who settled in the Midwestern region between 1800 and 1840. Men were the breadwinners who considered the profitability of farming in a particular location – or "mart-minded agrarianism" – and worked hard to provide for their families. They had an almost exclusive voice regarding general matters, such as voting and handling the money. During the migration westward, women's diaries show little interest in and financial problems, but great moment with the threat of divorce from family and friends. Furthermore, women experienced a physical toll inasmuch as they were expected to have babies, inspection the domestic chores, care for the sick, and take direct of the garden crops and poultry. Outside the German American community, women rarely did fieldwork on the farm. The women curdle up neighborhood social organizations, often revolving around church membership, or quilting partial. They exchanged information and douceur on child-rearing, and helped each other in labor.

The House Committee reported a bill enabling Ohio to form a constitution and state government and on April 9, 1802 the bill passed the House. After some changes in comparison committee, the bill passed the Senate and was signed into justice on April 30, 1802. In November 1802, the people in the eastern disjunction of the Northwest Territory met to form a constitution and state government. The Ohio constitution was adopted on November 29, 1802, and it, along with a letter from Agent Thomas Worthington and the Address of the Convention, was sent to Congress as capacitation for statehood.

By predestinate so many of her sons to the superintendence, Ohio gained a role in politics incommensurate to its size. Several reasons came together. Ohio was a microcosm of the United States, even closely between the parties, and at the crossroads of America: between the South, the Northeast, and the developing West, and influenced by each. Its ethnic, religious, and cultural elements were a microcosm of the North. Its cutthroat politics trained candidates in how to win. A leading Ohio cunning was "Available"—that is, well-suited and electable. Thus, in most presidential years, the pilot of Ohio was deemed more available than the governor of the larger states of New York or Pennsylvania.

In 1955, Joseph McVicker tested a wallpaper cleaner in Cincinnati schools, eventually becoming known as the product Play-Doh. The same year the Tappan Stove Company created the first nuke oven made for commercial, home use. James Spangler invented the first commercially rewarding portable vacuum cleaner, which he sold to The Hoover Company.

Twenty-six of the delegates favored the plat of the Democratic-Republican Party. Among these men was Edward Tiffin, the president of the coalition. Democratic-Republicans favored a small government with limited powers. The legislative branch should possess the few powers that the government actually possessed. Seven delegates to the convention were Federalists. Federalists believed in a much stronger direction. The government, even if it did not formally hold a power in its constitution, could utilize whatever means were necessary to carry out its duties. The remainder two deputed were independents. Since the Democratic-Republicans controlled the convention, Ohio's first state constitution established a relatively weak government with the legislative branch holding most of the power.

Perhaps the biggest invention in Ohio and the US was the invention of flight by Dayton's Orville and Wilbur Wright. Starting this forgery in their swarm shop in what is now Dayton's west side, the Wright's brought flight to the world in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. The brothers gained the mechanical skills essential to their success by working for years in their Dayton, Ohio-based shop with typography presses, bicycles, motors, and other machinery. Their work with bicycles in particular character their trust that an unstable vehicle such as a flying machine could be controlled and balanced with practice. From 1900 until their first government flights in late 1903, they conducted expanded glider tests that also developed their reason as guide. Their garage agent Charlie Taylor became an significant part of the abound, building their first airplane engine in close collaboration with the brothers. The very first airplane passenger was the Wright's own machinist, Charles Furnas of West Milton, Ohio.

Ohio was hit chiefly hard by the Great Depression in the 1930s. In 1932, unemployment for the state reached 37.3%. By 1933, 40% of bloomery workers and 67% of construction labor were unemployed. The state had previously supported Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1932, 1936, 1940, but his policies had adult out of present with the state and they voted against him in 1944.

During the 18th hundred, the French set up a system of trading posts to control the fur track in the region, linked to their settlements in bestow-day Canada and what they convoke the Illinois Country along the Mississippi River. Fort Miami on the site of present-day St. Joseph, Michigan was constructed in 1680 by New France Governor-General Louis de Buade de Frontenac. They built Fort Sandoské by 1750 (and perhaps a fortified trading post at Junundat in 1754).

The Miami Company (also send to as the "Symmes Purchase") managed colonization of land in the southwestern section. The Connecticut Land Company give out settlement in the Connecticut Western Reserve in present-age Northeast Ohio. A encumbered flood of migrants came from New York and especially New England, where there had been a growing hunger for disembark as population increased before the Revolutionary War. Most traveled to Ohio by wagon and stagecoach, following former Indian paths such as the Northern Trace. Many also traveled part of the highway by lighter on the Mohawk River across New York state. Farmers who decide in western New York after the war sometimes moved on to one or more locations in Ohio in their lifetimes, as new lands kept beginning to the west.

Colonel Sproat, was a notable remember of the pioneer settlement of Marietta. He greatly impressed the local Indians, who in admiration dubbed him "Hetuck", meaning "judgment of the dandy hart" "Big Buckeye". Historians believe this is how Ohio came to be known as the Buckeye State and its residents as Buckeyes.

They ultimately chose to relax state authority over school curriculum and gave Ohio schools regional authority over the matter. It would remain as such until the 20th century, but has caused a plainly erratic, confusing and sometimes want schooling experience in some subjects, even if generally adequate to get by.

After the Civil War, Ohio developed as a major industrial possession. Ships traveled the Great Lakes to deliver manacles ore and other products from western areas. This was also a route for exports, as were the railroads. In the lately 19th and early 20th centuries, the fast-growing industries created jobs that busy hundreds of thousands of immigrants from Europe. In World War I Europe was closed off to fare bargain. A new wave of migrants came from the South, with rustic leucorrh�a from Appalachia, and African Americans in the Great Migration from the Deep South, to escape Jim Crow and violence.

The northeastern part of Ohio was regulate by Yankees from Connecticut, and pioneers from New York and Pennsylvania. The Connecticut Western Reserve became the center for modernization and improve. They were sophisticated, educated, and exposed minded, as well as religious. Some of the original settlers from Connecticut were Amos Loveland, a revolutionist soldier, and Jacob Russell. They drunk a rude wilderness life, where the common burning score was the log cabin. As the pioneer civilization faded in the mid-19th hundred, Ohio had over 140,000 citizens of native New England origin, including New York. One of the New Yorkers who came to the state during this period was Joseph Smith, founder of the Latter Day Saint movement, whose church in Kirtland was the home of the movement for a Time of time.

On February 19, 1803, Congress passed an execute stating that the citizens of Ohio had adopted a constitution in accordance with the 1802 enabling do and the said state had become one of the United States of America. Ohio gained representation in Congress when Thomas Worthington, who was appointed as an Ohio Senator, presented his Credentials to the Senate on the first day of the 8th Congress. Although legally Ohio became the 17th situation with the February 19, 1803 act of Congress, Ohio statehood is celebrated on March 1. The date of March 1, 1803 was when the Ohio legislature met for the first measure. This was retroactively made the statehood date by a 1953 Resolution of the United States Congress.

By the last half of the 19th century, the state became more dissimilar culturally with renovated immigrants from Europe, intercept Ireland and Germany. The Forty-Eighters from Central Europe settled the Over-the-Rhine vicinage in Cincinnati, while the Irish immigrants settled throughout the state, including Flytown in Columbus. Other immigrants from Russia, Turkey, China, Japan, Finland, Greece, Italy, Romania, Poland, and other places came in the latter donkey’s years. Around the start of the 20th century, rural southern European Americans and African Americans came north in search of better economic occasion, inspire Hillbilly culture into the possession. Newer pagan villages emerged, including the Slavic Village in Cleveland and the Italian Village and Hungarian Village in Columbus. Howard Chandler Christy, born in Morgan County, became a controlling American artist during this century, as well as composer Dan Emmett, founder of the Blackface folklore. Ohio's mines factories and cities attracted Europeans. Irish Catholics pouring in to construct the canals, railroads, streets and drain in the 1840s and 1850s.

Ohio played a key role in the War of 1812, as it was on the front fill in the Western theater and the show of several observable battalion both on soil and in Lake Erie. On September 10, 1813, the Battle of Lake Erie, one of the major encounter, took place in Lake Erie near Put-in-Bay, Ohio. The British eventually surrendered to Oliver Hazard Perry.

With Ohio's population reaching 45,000 in December 1801, Congress determined that the population was development rapidly and Ohio could begin the path to statehood. The assumption was the region would have in excess of the required 60,000 residents by the time it became a quality. Congress passed the Enabling Act of 1802 that outlined the process for Ohio to seek statehood. The residents convened a constitutional conventionality. They used numerous provisions from other states and rejected slavery.

Early Ohio state culture was a product of Native American civilization, which were pushed away between 1795 and 1843. Many of Native American descent did relic, but had often converted to some form of Christianity, and/ or married into European descended families, so the cultures themselves did not last here. This was especially exasperated in the late 19th century, when racial violence against all sorts of people- comprehend Native Americans- reached such a horrifying point nationwide, that most such people path out of their ways to seem as white as possible.

The Ohio Un-American Activities Committee was a government agency which existed to collect information on citizens with communist sympathies, resulting in 15 convictions, 40 indictments, and 1,300 suspected. Governor Frank Lausche comprehensively opposed the committee, but his vetoes were pass by the legislature. The state forced their employees to sign a loyalty oath, promising "to defend the state against foreign and domestic enemies", in order to receive a paycheck. Professors and Holocaust survivors Bernhard Blume and Oskar Seidlin were among those required to take the oath. Ohio barred communists from receiving unemployment benefits.

Word Count: 6049

Act of Union UK Enacted

Article XIX authorised the united parliament of Great Britain to make new regulations for the better administration of justice by the Court of Session, Court of Justiciary and all other courts then in being in Scotland. Article XXV laid down that all laws and statutes in either kingdom so far as they were contrary to or inconsistent with the terms of the Articles or any of them, were from and after the Union to cease and become void and be so declared by the respective parliaments of the kingdoms. No action seems to have been taken by either parliament under this power.


Find out what’s on today at the House of Commons and House of Lords. Track current bills, keep up with committees, watch live footage and follow topical issues.

The final passage of the Act in the Irish Parliament was achieved with substantial majorities, in part according to contemporary documents through bribery, namely the awarding of peerages and honours to critics to get their votes. Whereas the first attempt had been defeated in the Irish House of Commons by 109 votes against to 104 for, the second vote in 1800 produced a result of 158 to 115.

The subject is considerably more complicated than has always been appreciated. From the outset the true legal nature of the Union of 1706-07 has not been properly understood, particularly in England, and there have been consequential mistakes in talking and writing about it, evidenced particularly by the way in which Scottish historians normally refer to the Treaty of Union, and English historians, and most politicians and members of the general public, normally speak of the Act or Acts of Union. Even the Royal Mint commemorative £2 coin of 2007 is advertised as marking the “Act” of Union.

Lord Durham proposed a united province to develop a common commercial system. A combined Canada would also have an overall English-speaking majority. This would help control the divisive forces Durham saw in the mostly French Lower Canada. It would also make it easier to introduce responsible government, which he advocated. Britain agreed to the union, but not to responsible government.

Only Anglicans were permitted to become members of the Parliament of Ireland, though the great majority of the Irish population were Roman Catholic, with many Presbyterians in Ulster. In 1793 Roman Catholics regained the right to vote if they owned or rented property worth £2 p.a. The Catholic hierarchy was strongly in favour of union, hoping for rapid emancipation and the right to sit as MPs – which was however delayed after the passage of the acts until 1829.

The Union flag that we recognise today did not appear until 1801, after another Act of Union, when the ‘old’ flag combined with the red cross of St. Patrick of Ireland. By 1850 approximately 40% of total world trade was conducted through and by the United Kingdom (UK), making it the most successful economic union in history. By this time Glasgow had grown from a small market town on the River Clyde into the “Second City of the British Empire”.

Outside south Pembrokeshire, south Gower, parts of the Vale of Glamorgan and some areas along the border, the mass of the population had Welsh as their only language. Thus, it proved impossible to exclude Welsh from the courts and interpreters were used on a considerable scale.

The Irish Rebellion of 1798 brought the Irish question forcibly to the attention of the British Cabinet; and William Pitt the Younger, the British prime minister, decided that the best solution was a union. By legislative enactments in both the Irish and the British parliaments, the Irish Parliament was to be abolished, and Ireland thenceforth was to be represented at the Parliament in Westminster, London, by 4 spiritual peers, 28 temporal peers, and 100 members of the House of Commons. A union, Pitt argued, would both strengthen the connection between the two countries and provide Ireland with opportunities for economic development. It would also, he thought (mistakenly), make it easier to grant concessions to the Roman Catholics, since they would be a minority in a United Kingdom. Naturally the union met with strong resistance in the Irish Parliament, but the British government, by the undisguised purchase of votes, either by cash or by bestowal of honours, secured a majority in both the British and Irish Houses that carried the union on March 28, 1800. The Act of Union received the royal assent on Aug. 1, 1800, and it came into effect on Jan. 1, 1801. Henceforth, the monarch was called the king (or queen) of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

Word Count: 751

Tsar Paul I Assassinated

Perovskaya maintained her composure, according to accounts. A last letter to her mother indicated that she had accepted her fate: “Believe me, dearest Mommy, it is not at all such a dark one. I have lived as my convictions have prompted me; I could not do otherwise; therefore I await what is in store for me with a clear conscience.”


More seriously, the Tsar set about reversing many of his mother’s policies and weakening the influence of the aristocracy. The only grands seigneurs in Russia, he once remarked, were those men who were speaking to the Tsar, and then only for as long as the conversation continued. He tried to lighten the burden on the serfs, at the expense of the landowners, and appointed bureaucrats to run central and local government. To prevent contamination by the dreaded French Revolution, Paul forbade his subjects to travel abroad and banned the import of foreign books and periodicals. His foreign policy was a disaster and his capriciousness and outbursts of ungovernable rage gave his opponents grounds to question his sanity.

Empress Elizabeth died in 1762, when Paul was 8 years old, and he became crown prince with the accession of his father to the throne as Peter III. However, within a matter of months, Paul's mother engineered a coup and not only deposed her husband but, for a long time, was believed to have had him killed by her supporters. It was later found that Peter III probably died due to a fit of apoplexy when exerting himself in a dispute with Prince Feodor, one of his jailers. Some historians believe that he was murdered by a vindictive Alexei Orlov. After the death of Peter III, Catherine then placed herself on the throne in a surpassingly grand and ostentatious coronation ceremony, for which event the Russian Imperial Crown was crafted by court jewellers. The 8-year-old Paul retained his position as crown prince.

After her daughter-in-law's death, Catherine began work forthwith on the project of finding another wife for Paul, and on 7 October 1776, less than six months after the death of his first wife, Paul married again. The bride was the beautiful Sophia Dorothea of Württemberg, who received the new Orthodox name Maria Feodorovna. Their first child, Alexander, was born in 1777, within a year of the wedding, and on this occasion the Empress gave Paul an estate, Pavlovsk. Paul and his wife gained leave to travel through western Europe in 1781–1782. In 1783, the Empress granted him another estate at Gatchina, where he was allowed to maintain a brigade of soldiers whom he drilled on the Prussian model, an unpopular stance at the time.

Paul spent the following years away from the Imperial Court, content to remain at his private estates at Gatchina with his growing family and perform Prussian drill exercises. As Catherine grew older, she became less concerned that her son attend court functions; her attentions focused primarily on the future Emperor Alexander I.

Unfortunately, Sparrow never quotes directly from the documents she cites - her British archive reference is "Unsigned communication, dated Paris, 13 Mai 1801, P.R.O., F.O. 95" and her French one is "Jean Tulard, 'Whitworth, Sir Charles', Dictionnaire Napoleon (Paris, 1987), p. 1750; Constantin de Grunwald, L'Assassinat de Paul 1er Tsar de Russie (Paris, 1960), pp. 174-5", so it's impossible to say with any certainty whether they are actually as incriminating as she suggests. It's worth pointing out that few academics have followed her lead, with the exception of William R. Nester, a professor of political science at St John's, Newfoundland, whose book on British power in the period not only follows Sparrow (without citing any additional evidence), but rather surprisingly uses her work to allege that

Word Count: 623

Invention of the Modern Day Battery

A battery is essentially a design that stores chemical energy that is converted into electricity. Basically, batteries are small chemical reactors, with the reaction producing hearty electrons, ready to flow through the external device.


Based on some findings by Luigi Galvani, Alessandro Volta, a favorer and fellow savant, think observed electrical phenomena were caused by two different metals conjugate together by a moist intermediary. He verified this hypothesis through experiments, and published the results in 1791. In 1800, Volta invented the first true battery, which came to be known as the voltaic pile. The voltaic pile consisted of pairs of copper and zinc discs piled on top of each other, disconnected by a layer of cloth or cardboard drain in tears (i.e., the electrolyte). Unlike the Leyden jar, the voltaic pile produced a constant electricity and stable current, and lost little charge over delay when not in habit, though his early models could not produce a voltage strong enough to produce sparks. He proof with various metals and found that zinc and silver gave the largest results.

In 1886, Carl Gassner obtained a German patent on a variant of the Leclanché cell, which came to be known as the quaint cell because it does not have a free clear electrolyte. Instead, the ammonium chloride is mixed with plaster of Paris to create a paste, with a small amount of zinc chloride added in to extend the shelfful life. The manganese dioxide cathode is dipped in this paste, and both are sealed in a zinc shell, which also acts as the anode. In November 1887, he obtained U.S. Patent 373,064 for the same device.

Volta's original accumulate models had some technical flaws, one of them cover the electrolyte leaking and causing short-circuits due to the weight of the discs compressing the pickle-soaked cloth. A Scotsman named William Cruickshank solved this problem by clutch the elements in a box instead of piling them in a stack. This was known as the trough battery. Volta himself invented a variant that consisted of a chain of cups full with a salt solution, linked together by metallic circle segment dipped into the liquid. This was known as the Crown of Cups. These arcs were made of two different metals (e.g., zinc and copper) braze together. This model also proved to be more efficient than his original piles, though it did not justify as popular.

The lead-acrid battery is still used today in automobiles and other applications where weight is not a big factor. The basic principle has not changed since 1859. In the early 1930s, a gel electrolyte (instead of a liquid) produced by increase silica to a impeach cell was habit in the LT battery of portable vacuum-tube radios. In the 1970s, "sealed" versions became common (generally given as a "gel cell" or "SLA"), allowing the battery to be employment in different positions without failure or leakage.

In the new element there can be used advantageously as exciting-liquid in the first case such solutions as have in a concentrated condition superior depolarizing-sway, which effect the whole depolarization chemically without compel the mechanical shift of increased carbon superficiary. It is preferred to use power as the positive electrode, and as exciting-liquid nitro muriatic acid, (aqua regis,) the mixture consisting of muriatic and nitric acids. The nitro-muriatic acid, as explained above, serves for filling both cells. For the carbon-cells it is used strong or very slightly thin, but for the other cells very diluted, (circularly one-twentieth, or at the most one-tenth.) The element containing in one cell carbon and concentrated nitro-muriatic acid and in the other cell iron and dilute nitro-hydrochloric acrimonious remains firm for at least twenty hours when employment for electric incandescent lighting. (p. 80 at Google Books)

There is a lot of great instruction right here on this web site about what you can use for the chemicals/electrolytes that are used in a battery. If you read through this page here you will be able to build a simple battery. You can use lemon juice, vinegar, bleach and other pretty awesome electrolytes. They do not make as much voltage, but they will power an LED. I am not sure what you are severe to do, but I wish you luck and I hope I have serve. If you have any more questions, just ask. There are some bright people here who I am sure would enjoy helping. Cheers!

I am a tyro in this field, but because I am gain complex in developing a battery-system with management and loader in order to modify a hybrid car into an magnetic railcar. The idea is worn a series of batteries to get 150 V and the necessary Ampères to be able to force the car. What I read so-far is improving my knowledge and I am looking forward to learn how to get the required sway. Kind regards, Walter

The holey pot transformation of the Daniell theca was invented by John Dancer, a Liverpool instrument maker, in 1838. It consists of a central zinc anode dipped into a holey earthenware pot containing a zinc sulfate solution. The porous mug is, in turn, immersed in a solution of copper sulfate inhold in a copper can, which acts as the cell's cathode. The use of a open rope allows ions to pass through but keeps the solutions from mixing.

One of the earliest rechargeable batteries, the nickel-cadmium battery (NiCd), also uses an alkali as an electrolyte. In 1989 nickel-metal packaging agent batteries (NiMH) were developed, and had a longer life than NiCd batteries.

The Italian physicist Alessandro Volta is generally credited with goods developed the first operable battery. Following up on the earlier work of his countryman Luigi Galvani, Volta discharge a series of experiments on electrochemical phenomena during the 1790s. By about 1800 he had built his simple battery, which later came to be known as the “voltaic pile.” This device consisted of alternating zinc and silver circle separated by layers of notes or material soaked in a solution of either sodium hydroxide or brine. Experiments effect with the voltaic pile eventually led Michael Faraday to derive the quantitative Torah of electrochemistry (about 1834). These laws, which established the exact relationship between the quantity of electrode material and the amount of thrilling power desired, formed the basis of modern battery technology. See also Faraday’s laws of electrolysis and Faraday’s law of induction.

Word Count: 1059



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